Other Problems and Solutions
- Alternate Year Bearing
- Controlling Growth and Appearance of Fairway Grass on Golf Courses
- Early Dying of Soybeans
- Lack of Flowers
- Late Plant
- Problems with Micronutrients on Glyphosate Resistant Crops
- Sucking Insects
- Summer Fruit Drop
- The Lack of Grain Sizing on Wheat or Barley
- Weak Flower Pollination
Years of research has proven that soybeans that contain a lot of pods will die earlier. This will limit the seed size. Soybean plants that have fewer pods will live longer and the bean size will be longer. Therefore, it is difficult to consistently raise high yields of soybeans! When a soybean plant is heavy podded, and has a greater number of seeds, the additional seeds promote a hormone which causes the nodules to die and causes the leaves to quickly senescence. Therefore, a heavily podded soybean plant will normally have a shorter life and dies more quickly than a soybean plant with fewer pods.
The soybean plant with fewer pods does not have as many seeds, which in turn produce less hormone to kill soybean nodules and cause tissue dying in the leaves.
We know that there are climatic conditions where the soybean plant will live longer, even though there is greater pod numbers. These are the years when high yields are always obtained.
We also know that soybean plants that have fewer pods will tend to live longer and the stems will stay green longer which causes problems when harvesting the soybean plant. This is called Green Stem.
In order to consistently have pod filling and seed sizing, it is important that the leaves of the plant allow the sugars to move from the leaves, to the petiole, and to the developing bean and bean pods. This is greatly inhibited if the leaves contain excessive gibberellic acid. The excessive gibberellic acid that is still in the leaves causes the sugars to stay in the leaves and will not let them go down the petiole down to the bean pod and size the beans inside the pods. If one is going to cause faster sugar movement to the soybean pods and seeds, the gibberellic acid must be down regulated in the plant cells of the plant leaves.
Although the faster movement of sugars from the leaves to the pods is possible, this may also cause the level of ethylene and abscisic acid to build in the leaf tissue causing early dying of the plant. This will also cause early dying of the nodules.
In order to allow the plant to live a longer period of time, in order to size the seed, either ethylene or abscisic acid must be controlled. If either one of these hormones are controlled, the seeds and pods will have a greater time (number of days) to receive the sugars that are transferred from the plant leaves and the plant stems to the developing seed. This research has been proven at Iowa State University.
There are now products on the market that are supposed to down regulate gibberellic acid in plant leaves and control ethlene concentrations so that the plant can have higher yields. This technology is very inconsistent. On some varieties in certain climatic conditions, yields can be increased. On other varieties, under different climatic circumstances, yields are not increased and green stem becomes a problem.
If plants are heavily podded, one pint of Bio-Forge per acre at the R4.5 stage will both lower the gibberellic acid in the plant leaves so that they release sugar and at the same time will down regulate ethylene so that the nodules in the plant leaf tissues can live a longer period of time.
This is a very simple application. It may be difficult to apply Bio-Forge at the R4.5 stage with field sprayer. It may be necessary to apply this with an aerial applicator. This is a decision that should be made by the grower.
Bio-Forge has a unique characteristic of maintaining the plant life for a longer seed filling period. It is also an effective down regulator of gibberellic acid so that the leaves will unload more of their sugars that will pass down the petiole into the stalk and size the seeds in the pods that are already on the plant.
Bio-Forge should also work on any other grain plant where sugars must be transferred from the leaves to the grain. These other plants will also need a stinted plant life in order to give the grain a longer period for seed filing.
J/JHS Articles/PEP – Early dying of soybeans growth 031507 bc